Our goal in this project is the realization of a practical scheme for early detection and early treatment of disease by searching and verifying microRNA (miRNA) in the blood as disease biomarkers. Using serum specimens preserved by National Cancer Center's Biobank, miRNA expression profiles are acquired for more than 5,000 specimens for cancers commonly developed in the Japanese population. These specimens are linked to patient clinical information in order to perform integrated analysis. We also conduct the same analysis on approximately 4,000 serum of patients with dementia preserved at National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology's Biobank. Our targets for blood miRNA analysis include several kinds of cancer, such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, glioma and sarcoma as well as dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease.